Glossary

This page list all specific terms used by the eGrid with their definition.

Blended learning

Combination of face-to-face classroom methods with computer-mediated activities.

CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages)

The CEFR is a document which provides descriptors (can-do statements) and prioritises the communicative competences of learners of foreign languages at different levels (A1, A2; B1, B2; C1, C2). These provide a basis for standardised assessment of a learner’s language proficiency.

Certificate in teaching the target language

Document which certifies that a person has successfully completed a structured course on teaching the target language.

Context

Factors in the teaching environment that have an influence on the teaching and the learning process of learners, for example: country, age of the students (primary, secondary, adults), kind of school (public, private), etc.

Course coordinator

Person responsible for the development and day to day operation of a specific language course.

Curriculum

Overall description of the aims, content, length, organisation, methods and evaluation of an educational course.

Degree module

Self-contained unit that is part of a degree course.

Digital media

Digitised content (text, graphics, audio, and video) for teaching that can be transmitted over the Internet or computer networks.Digitised content (text, graphics, audio, and video) for teaching that can be transmitted over the Internet or computer networks.Digitised content (text, graphics, audio, and video) for teaching that can be transmitted over the Internet or computer networks.

Documented

Evaluative or factual information recorded in writing. Examples of what can be: documented feedback given by the tutor / academic manager who has observed a teacher’s lesson; documented teaching practice that has been observed and assessed in writing by a tutor or academic manager; documented teaching experience number of hours a teacher has taught at an institution as formally recorded by employers.

Examination certificate

Document that certifies a level of language proficiency usually following a set of agreed standards (in Europe, according to CEFR). 

Group work 

Classroom interaction which involves various groups of students simultaneously doing a task together.

IWB (interactive white board)

Large interactive display that connects to a computer and projector.

Language awareness

Teacher’s knowledge about the target language (form, meaning and use) and understanding of how the target language – and communication in general – works

Language Learning Theories

Accounts of the psycholinguistic, cognitive and affective processes involved in learning a language and of the conditions that need to be met in order for these processes to take place.

Language pedagogy

The principles and methods of instruction applied when teaching students a foreign language.

Language proficiency

Level of the student’s linguistic knowledge of the language and ability to use it.

Learning management system (LMS)

Software for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of education courses or training programs, e.g. Moodle.

Learning strategies

Learner’s approach to learning and using information, the ways in which a learner attempts to work out the meanings and uses of words, grammar rules and other aspects of the language they are learning. 

Learning styles

Learners’ individual and habitual ways of acquiring information and skills. 

Marking code

Use of different symbols to indicate a type of mistake made in written work, e.g. WO – for wrong word order, S – for wrong spelling, etc.

Mentor

An experienced teacher / tutor / academic manager who shares knowledge, skills, and perspectives to support the personal and professional growth of a less experienced teacher (the mentoree). 

Micro-teaching

Method of teacher training in which trainees practise teaching for a short period of time with peers or volunteer students, usually with a trainer observing them 

Models of language form and usage

Accurate and appropriate examples of language structures that students can imitate, practise with and learn from.

Needs analysis

Procedure for identifying why students need or wish to study the target language including the purposes for which and contexts in which they will use it.

Outcomes

Results of the learning process (what students have actually learned), which may differ from the objectives planned.

Pair work

Classroom interaction in which each student works simultaneously on language learning tasks with a partner.

Placement testing

Procedure which aims to assess the language level of students prior to starting a course in order to place them in the right group.

Professional development

The professional growth a teacher achieves in the process of gaining experience and knowledge and reflecting on his / her teaching.

Professional diploma

Document showing that you have undergone assessment and successfully completed a teacher training or language course.

Progress test

Procedure designed to assess learners’ developing language and skills in relation to the course they have been following.

Reference sources

Dictionaries, grammar books, teacher’s books, encyclopedias, etc.

Standardisation sessions

Training designed to ensure that the teachers at the same institution use the same criteria, such as those specified in CEFR scales, when assessing their learners’ speaking and writing skills.

Stereotypical views

Fixed and / or simplistic ideas that people have of a particular type of person or culture or way of behaving, etc. 

Syllabus

Written outline and summary of the content of a course of instruction and the order in which language skills and / or knowledge are to be taught, usually including an indication of how the time should be allocated. 

Task-based learning

Classroom language learning in which learners work on communicative and interactive activities. 

Teaching approach

The way in which a teacher or institution applies principles and methods of language teaching.

Teaching technique

A specific way of handling a classroom activity.

Team-teach

Working with another colleague to plan and conduct language lessons for the same group of learners.

Test 

Procedure for measuring ability, knowledge or performance. There are four basic types: diagnostic, placement, achievement / progress, and proficiency. 

Troubleshoot

Analyse and solve problems, identify and correct faults in classroom equipment.

Usage

The way language forms and vocabulary are actually used in speaking and writing.